Data and case studies
World Obesity have collated some of the recent data and case studies available looking pertaining to obesity and the current outbreak of COVID-19.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University in the US examined 265 patients to determine if younger patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were more likely to be living with overweight and obesity. They found a correlation, which they hypothesise may be due to physiologic changes from obesity. Other comorbidities these patients may have had were not reported. Read the full study here.
Chinese researchers identified 66 patients with COVID-19 and fatty liver disease and compared the outcomes for those with and without obesity. They found obesity was a significant risk factor for severe illness in this population after accounting for other factors (age, gender, smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia). Read the full study here.
The global rise in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes can be partially explained by a rise in diets high in fats, sugars and refined carbohydrates. Diets high in saturated fatty acids cause inflammation and immune disfunction, which may explain why minority groups (who experience disproportionate rates of diseases linked to nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes) are also hospitalised with COVID-19 at higher rates. Read the full study here.
MicroRNAs (abbreviated miRNAs) are produced in human cells to regulate gene expression. Some research has suggested that these may also defend against viruses. These researchers identified 848 miRNAs that are may be effective against SARS and 873 that could target COVID-19 using genome sequences of each of these viruses. Previous studies have suggested that the elderly and those with underlying conditions (including obesity) may produce less of these miRNAs, possibly explaining why these groups are at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. However, trials in human and animal subjects are needed to verify these theoretical results. Read the full study here.
Given the importance of determining the risk factors for morbidity and mortality related to COVID-19, this retrospective study analysed the frequency and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in critical care who are living with overweight or obesity. “Of the 3,615 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19, 775 (21%) had a body mass index (BMI) 30-34, and 595 (16% of the total cohort) had a BMI >35.” While patients were separated into elderly (over 60) and younger (under 60) groups, it was not reported if the study controlled for other variables that may affect the course of COVID-19. Read the full study here.
This piece describes two patients with obesity that experienced damage to their airways while being intubated due to severe illness from COVID-19. The authors recommend videolaryngoscopy for intubation to protect both patients and healthcare workers. Read the full study here.
These researchers chose to specifically examine how many COVID-19 patients living with obesity or overweight were placed on ventilators. Based in Lille, France, the study included 124 patients, 68.8% of whom ultimately required ventilation. They established a dose-response relationship- increasing body max index (BMI) increased the risk of needing ventilation. This study found that BMI seemed to be associated with ventilator treatments independently of age, diabetes or high blood pressure. However, further research must be conducted before this relationship is proven. Read the full study here.
Researchers obtained medical records of 16,749 people hospitalised for COVID-19 to determine what were some of the factors that made patients more likely to experience severe cases of the illness. Slightly over half of patients had at least one underlying condition (including obesity) and these patients were more likely to die from COVID-19. The study found that obesity is linked to mortality, independently of age, gender and other associated conditions. Read the full study here.
Using a very large sample size of 17,425,455, this cohort study aimed to identify risk factors associated with mortality due to COVID-19 across the general population. Among the comorbidities, most of them were associated with increased risk, including obesity. Furthermore, deprivation was also identified as a major risk factor. Specifically, for patients with overweight and obesity, as their body mass index increased, so did their risk of dying from COVID-19. Read the full study here.
This study included 48 critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated with invasive ventilation in Spain. Of this population, 48% were living with obesity, 44% with hypertension, and 38% with chronic lung disease. Symptoms and patient outcomes were also described. Read the full study here.
This study examined the correlation between severe disease and body mass index (BMI) among 357 patients in France. People diagnosed with severe COVID-19 were 1.35 times more likely to also be living with obesity and people in critical care with COVID-19 were 1.89 times more likely to be living with obesity than the general public. This study adjusted for age and gender of patients but no other cofounding factors. Read the full study here.
Previous research has demonstrated that children tend to gain weight during when school is not in session, so experts have been concerned about the impact of lockdowns due to coronavirus on childhood obesity rates. This study observed lifestyle behaviours in 41 children living with obesity at baseline and then three weeks into quarantine. Scientists found that children reported eating more meals, as well as more potato chips, red meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages. They slept more, exercised less and spent much more time looking at screens. As a result, researchers recommend that lifestyle interventions be delivered through telemedicine while the lockdown lasts. Read the full study here.
A recent study from France examined 1317 COVID-19 patients living with diabetes. Of these, more than 10% passed away and almost 33% needed to be placed on a ventilator within a week of admission to the hospital. Obesity was found to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes when other cofounding factors were accounted for. Read the full study here.
This study found that, of 5700 patients admitted to 12 selected New York hospitals with COVID-19, 56.6% had hypertension (high blood pressure), 41.7% were living with obesity and 33.8% had diabetes. It also reported data on patient outcomes. Read the full study here.
Wuhan city, the capital of Hubei province in China, was for a long time the epicentre of the COVID-19 outbreak. This study presents information of patients admitted to two Wuhan hospitals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. 191 patients were included in order to determine what risk factors lead to fatalities, describe Covid-19 symptoms over time, determine how long patients are infectious after they recover and record what treatments were tried. It should be noted that almost half of patients had underlying health conditions such as hypertension or heart disease, although obesity was not measured. Read the full study here.
This study examined 24 adults to determine which populations in the Seattle area were hospitalised with severe illness from COVID-19, what underlying conditions they had, the results of medical imaging tests and whether they recovered. Patients had an average body mass index of 33.2 (give or take 7.2 units) and over half (58%) of patients were diagnosed with diabetes. Scientists concluded that “patients with coexisting conditions and older age are at risk for severe disease and poor outcomes after ICU [intensive care unit] admission.” Read the full study here.
Looking at 383 patients in Shenzen, China, this study was the first to directly examine the correlation between obesity and severe illness from coronavirus. For this study, a person with a body mass index (BMI) between 24.0 - 27.9 was considered overweight and a person with a BMI greater than 28 was considered to be living with obesity. While people living with obesity generally experienced the same length of illness, they were significantly more likely to develop severe pneumonia, even when accounting for other risk factors. Read the full study here.
Based on a sample of 4,103 New York City residents, this paper evaluates what characteristics make people more likely to be admitted to the hospital and critical care. Overall, it was observed that 39.8% of people living with obesity were hospitalised, compared to 14.5% without. Scientists found “particularly strong associations of older age, obesity, heart failure and chronic kidney disease with hospitalization risk, with much less influence of race, smoking status, chronic pulmonary disease and other forms of heart disease.” Read the full study here.
In order to ensure the proper monitoring of COVID-19-related hospitalisations across the United States, the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) was developed. This report “presents age-stratified COVID-19-associated hospitalisation rates for patients admitted during March 1-28, 2020, and clinical data on patients admitted during March 1-30, 2020.” Among the 1,482 patients diagnosed and hospitalised with COVID-19, 90% had at least one comorbidity and 42% were living with obesity, with African Americans and the elderly disproportionately affected. Read the full study here.
This report examined demographic information of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in China. Of these, older patients, diabetics and those living with obesity were significantly more likely to be considered “severely ill.” The study also looked at symptoms during admission at admission and treatment options. Read the full study here.
In this study, researchers used data from 103 consecutive patients hospitalized in the USA. There were two major findings- a correlation between critical care admissions due to COVID-19 and a body mass index greater than 35 in general, and a correlation between needing invasive mechanical ventilation and having both heart disease and obesity. These findings were adjusted for age, sex, and race. Read the full study here.
This article examined how SARS- CoV-2 impacts pregnancy using 46 patients in the USA. Almost all patients who developed severe disease were living with overweight and obesity. After diagnosis, 16% of patients were admitted to the hospital and 2% were placed in intensive care. Researchers believe this, along with the need to induce labour prematurely in some patients to improve breathing, may suggest that pregnant women should be classified as a vulnerable group. Read the full study here.
School and recreational space closures due to COVID-19 have reduced physical activity among children. Researchers used modeling software to simulate the following scenarios:
- No school closures (control)
- Schools closed for two months
- Schools closed for two months and 10% reduction in physical activity over the summer break
- Schools closed for four months (April through May and September through October) and 10% reduction in physical activity over the summer break
- Schools closed for six months (April through May and September through December) and 10% reduction in physical activity over the summer break
Overall, the pandemic is projected to increase mean standardised body mass index (BMI) between 0.056 (two-month closure) and 0.198 (six-month closure) units. It may also increase the percentage of children living with obesity in the USA by up to 2.373 percentage points. Read the full study here.
This study was conducted to examine the characteristics and course of disease in 50 New York children (under 21 years of age) hospitalised with COVID-19. Of the study population, 11 patients had obesity and 8 had overweight. Obesity was found to be a significant risk factor for both severe disease and mechanical ventilation while immunosuppression was not. Read the full study here.
Researchers at the University of Chicago Medical Center found that patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were more likely to die if they were also living with obesity, even when accounting for age, sex, and underlying conditions. 238 patients were included within the study. These researchers did not find a significant connection with admission to critical care units or mechanical ventilation in patients with obesity. Limitations included the makeup of the study population, as the sample size was small and the vast majority were African American, so the results may not be representative of all people. Read the full study here.
This meta-analysis and systematic review found nine separate articles regarding the link between COVID-19, obesity and more severe diseases. Between all studies, 1817 patients were examined. Researchers found an odds ratio of 1.89 for poor outcomes in patients with obesity, especially among younger patients, which indicates that obesity increases the risk of severe diseases. Read the full study here.
A meta-analysis concluded that people living with obesity were more likely to have worse outcomes if they also contracted COVID-19. Researchers identified nine articles (six of which were retrospective case-control studies, four of which were retrospective cohort studies, and one of which used both methods) and extracted data from each. Limitations included heterogeneity in study design (particularly regarding the definition of obesity), lack of comorbidity reporting, and low quantity of studies used. Read the full study here.
As almost 75% of American adults over the age of 20 are living with overweight or obesity, this disease should be considered a public health priority, especially given the increased likelihood of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with obesity. The paper outlines several mechanisms explaining why obesity may lead to more severe disease, including having more of the receptor the virus uses to enter cells, reduced lung function, chronic inflammation, endothelial disfunction, changes in blood clotting, and physiological changes related to common comorbidities of obesity. Finally, several compelling studies linking obesity to increased risk of complications are included. Read the full study here.
Evidence shows that the impact of COVID-19 tends to be more serious in specific vulnerable groups, including people living with obesity. Furthermore, the pandemic also seems to have a number of indirect repercussions including on eating behaviour patterns among people with obesity. The objective of this study was “to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patronage to unhealthy eating establishments in populations with obesity.”
These researchers combined GPS data with known obesity rates to determine how many people with obesity entered unhealthy restaurants during the COVID-19 pandemic (December 2019- April 2020). Prior to lockdowns, more people in areas with high obesity rates entered fast food restaurants; in March, fewer people did across all areas; however, the numbers of patrons steadily increased during April, at a faster rate in areas with higher obesity rates. While informative, a number of limitations were observed, including the fact that not all consumers exactly match the demographics of the area they live in and that more variables may contribute to restaurant traffic than accounted for here. Read the full study here.
Various studies over the past few months have linked obesity to a more serious course of illness from COVID-19. It is therefore essential that we improve our understanding of the possible reasons for the link and what it means for those living with obesity. This systematic review looks at the influence of obesity on COVID-19 outcomes and proposes biological mechanisms as to why a more severe courseof illness can occur. It also discusses the implications of COVID-19 for those living with obesity. Read the full study here.
Both COVID-19 and childhood obesity are pandemics raging across America today. Obesity is an independent risk factor for the severity of COVID-19, suggesting that children with obesity could see a more severe course of illness due to COVID-19. The stay-at-home mandates and physical distancing preventative measures have resulted in a lack of access to nutritious foods, physical activity, routines and social interactions, all of which could negatively impact children -especially those living with obesity. Read the full study here.
Obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for poor outcome in those with COVID-19. Studies show that patients with obesity are more likely to require mechanical ventilation. In fact, multiorgan failure in patients with COVID-19 and obesity could be dueto the chronic metabolic inflammation and predisposition to the “enhanced release of cytokines-pathophysiology accompanying severe obesity”. However, the association between body mass index (BMI) and COVID-19 outcomes has yet to be fully explored. This study intends to address that gap. Read the full study here.
Emerging evidence suggests that the severity of COVID-19 in a patient is associated with overweight and obesity. Patients with obesity are at risk for a number of other non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular dysfunction and hypertension and diabetes. In individuals living with overweight and obesity, macronutrient excess in adipose tissue stimulates adipocytes “to release tumour necrosis factor α(TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other pro-inflammatory mediators and to reduce production of the anti-inflammatory adiponectin, thus predisposing to a proinflammatory state and oxidative stress”. Obesity also impairs immune responses; it has a negative impact on pathogen defences within the body. Therefore, the acceleration of viral inflammatory responses in COVID-19 and more unfavourable prognoses are associated with individuals living with obesity. Read the full study here.
Obesity has been identified as a comorbidity for severe outcomes in patients with COVID-19. In this study, comorbidities associated with increased risk of COVID-19 were determined in a population-based analysis of Mexicans with at least one comorbidity. Data was obtained from the COVID-19 database of the publicly available Mexican Ministry of Health “Dirección General de Epidemiología”. Variables of the patients’ heath were all noted, such as age, gender, smoking status, history of COVID-19 contact, comorbidities, etc. Patients with missing information were excluded in the analysis. To determine the independent effect of each comorbidityon COVID-19 and separate the effect of two or more, “analysis was limited to patients reporting only one comorbidity." Read the full study here.
Obesity has arisen as a major complication for the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. The former is a major health concern due to its side-effects on human health and association with morbidity and mortality. Evidence points out that obesity can worsen patient prognosis due to COVID-19 infection. There may be a “pathophysiological link that could explain the fact that obese patients are prone to present with SARS-CoV-2 complications”. The authors present mechanistic obesity-related issues that aggravate the SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients living with obesity and the possible molecular links between obesity and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read the full study here.
The highly infectious serious acute respiratory syndrome COVID-19 has caused high morbidity and mortality all over the world. It has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen of COVID-19, uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cell receptor. This receptor is found in the lungs but also many other organs, including the adipose tissue, heart, and oral epithelium. Previous studies have identified obesity as a critical factor in the prognoses of COVID-19 patients, and that, in patients with COVID-19, non-survivors had a higher body mass index (BMI) than survivors. This study intended to “investigate the association between obesity and poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients." Read the full study here.
Approximately 45% of individuals worldwide have overweight or obesity. Obesity is characterized by its pro-inflammatory condition. The excess visceral and omental adiposity seen in individuals with obesity are linked with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines that affect systemic cellular processes. Importantly, they “change the nature and frequency of immune cells infiltration”. When a high percentage of a population have obesity, more virulent viral strains tend to develop, and the reach of a virus is wider. Furthermore, the state of obesity is correlated to the presence of comorbidities that are dangerous to human health, such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension. This systematic review includes articles from a myriad of databases in order to address how living with obesity impacts one’s reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and course of COVID-19. Read the full study here.
The psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown and quarantine on children has been documented to cause “anxiety, worrying, irritability, depressive symptoms, and even post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms”. In particular, children living with severe obesity may struggle with anxieties about the possibility of obesogenic issues that can arise during the course of illness due to COVID-19. In this study, 75 families (one child interviewed per family) were interviewed on anxiety that their child with severe obesity may have, and on what specific type anxieties they are. 24 of 75 children reported having COVID-19 related anxieties. Read the full study here.
In this multi-centre study focused on retrospective observational data from eight hospitals throughout Greece, the data on 90 critically ill patients positive for COVID-19 is analysed. Those hospitalised due to COVID-19 reflect critically ill patients whodeveloped extremely severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in elderly patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia and/or underlying chronic diseases. Many underlying chronic diseases have been identified as risk factors for developing more severe COVID-19. These include type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. Obesity has also been associated with disease severity. In this study the relation of comorbidities such as obesity and type-2 diabetes and COVID-19 disease severity is explored. Read the full study here.
According to the World Health Organisation, physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death, and increases the risk of a person contracting a “metabolic disease, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D).” This article points out that those seeking treatment for obesity or T2D may find difficulty in doing so during the COVID-19 pandemic due to lockdowns. As it has been found that sedentary behaviour increases one's risk for many chronic diseases, the authors wished to explore hypothetical immunopathologyof COVID-19 in patients living with obesity and how the immune defences against COVID-19 may be related to the “immuno-metabolic dysregulations'' characterised by it. Furthermore, they explore the possibility of exercise as a counteractive measure due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Read the full study here.
Obesity has been linked to a less-efficient immune response in the human body as well as poorer outcomes for respiratory diseases. In this article, researchers hypothesised that a higher Body Mass Index is a risk factor for a more severe course of illness for COVID-19. They followed all patients hospitalised from 11 January to 16 February 2020 until March 26 2020 at the Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen (China), which was dedicated to COVID-19 treatment. Read the full study here.
As reported by the World Health Organization, the global prevalence of obesity is still on the rise both across high-income as well as low-and middle-income countries. Obesity has been associated with an increase in mortality for patients fighting COVID-19. The authors suggest that the inflammatory profile associated with patients with obesity is conducive to a more severe course of illness in patients with COVID-19. Read the full study here.
Researchers studying COVID-19, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), have concluded that obesity, diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease is correlated to an increased severity of illness due to COVID-19. Obesity has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 due to the “cytokine storm” of the latter; a number of the pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the “storm” which are detrimental to organ function are also found contributing to the chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with obesity. The authors wished to study a Middle Eastern population and assess the outcome of COVID-19 in relation to obesity. They observed clinical data from patients in the Al Kuwait Hospital in Dubai, UAE, to study the correlation between obesity and poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Read the full study here.
In many previous studies, underlying conditions such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes have been found to be correlated with an increased rate of hospitalisation and death due to SARS-CoV-2. Obesity is a non-communicable disease marked by an imbalanced energy state due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. Increased secretion of various cytokines and hormones, such as interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha and leptin, establishes a low-grade inflammatory state in patients with obesity. These pro-inflammatory cytokines predispose individuals “to increased risk for infection and adverse outcomes”. The metabolic disorders that are associated with obesity are numerous, including diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Most are associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19. Due to this link, obesity is “an important factor in determining the morbidity and mortality risk in SARS CoV 2 patients” as well as the need for mechanical ventilation. Read the full study here.
Pulmonary consolidation is the most common complication of COVID-19. A high percentageof COVID-19 related pulmonary consolidationis due to extensive pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Viral infections have been shown to be a risk factor for PF, and both viral infections and aging were“strongly associated cofactors” for PF in this study. Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19,suppresses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE2), which is a receptor exploited by the virus for cell entry; this receptor is “a negative regulator of” PF, which therefore links the virus to the progression of PF. Read the full study here.
Elevated body mass index has been marked as a risk factor for COVID-19 severity, hospital admissions and mortality. Diabetes and hypertension have also been associated with severe and fatal cases of COVID-19. Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses the causal effect of an exposure risk factor on an outcome using genetic variants as instruments of estimation. In this study, the causal relationship between obesity traits (such as elevated BMI and metabolic disorders) and quantitative cardiometabolic biomarkers and COVID-19 susceptibility was examined by MR. Data was obtained from the UK Biobank. 1,211 individuals who had tested positive for COVID-19 and 387,079 individuals who were negativeor untestedwere analysed. Read the full study here.
Obesity and diabetes have both been identified in epidemiological reports as comorbidities “frequently associated with severe forms of COVID-19”. Both have also been identified as an independent risk factor for the severity of COVID-19 in a patient. The presence of these diseases is associated with each other; therefore, they could “confer a particularly high risk of severe COVID-19”. In previous analysis of the CORONAvirus-SARS-CoV-2 and Diabetes Outcomes (CORONADO) Study, it was shown “that body mass index (BMI) was positively and independently associated with severe COVID-19-related outcomes ... in patients with diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19”. In this analysis of the CORONADO data, the course of COVID-19 and its relationship to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalised for this disease is explored. The influence of age on BMI and COVID-19 prognosis is also addressed due to the heightened impact of COVID-19 on the elderly population. Read the full study here.