Food Labelling: Case Studies

Evaluation of food labelling usefulness for consumers

This study assesses the usefulness of consumer perceptions about food labelling thought an online questionnaire in Europe. The results indicate that regular consumers usually do not read food labels because they have “lack of time” (50%), almost 45% considered they have excessive information and others just trust the brand name.See more

Objective Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels: An International Comparative Experimental Study across 12 Countries

This study aimed to assess consumer’s ability to understand five Front-of-Package labels (FoPLs) in different context by asking online  1000 participants per country (Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Spain, UK, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Singapore and US)  to rank three sets of label-free products consumed in all 12 countries (three sets of pizzas, cakes and breakfast cereals) according to their nutritional quality. Then they were randomised to one of the five FoPLs and were asked again to rank the products now with the labelling. See more.

An 11‐country study to benchmark the implementation of recommended nutrition policies by national governments using the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index, 2015‐2018

The extent of implementation of recommended food environment policies and international best practices was assessed in UK, Australia, New Zealand South Africa, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Chile, Mexico, Guatemala and Canada.  The Food Environment Policy Index was applied to national expert panels (public health and nutrition), representatives from nongovernmental organisations (England had the highest proportions of them) and medical associations. In some countries, policymakers were involved in the prioritization of actions, rating the process or just observing. See more.

Setting Policy Priorities for Front-of-Pack Health Claims and Symbols in the European Union: Expert Consensus Built by Using a Delphi Method

This study review assessments regarding the role of Front-of-Pack food labelling (FOPL), health claims and symbols in food consumers behaviour by looking though evidence-based policy recommendations and communication guidelines from the findings of the project: “Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumers behaviour” better known as CLYMBOL. In addition, they have evaluated and prioritized them by European stakeholders from different disciplines and sectors.See more

Consumer evaluation, use and health relevance of health claims in the European Union

The objectives of the study are to provide an overview of consumers’ evaluations on familiarity, understandability and credibility for a list of 17 authorised health claims in the European Union; to  profile  consumer segments with different levels of health claim use; and to describe the relationship between specific health claim use and health relevance. See more.

Regulating health and nutrition claims in the UK using a nutrient profile model: an explorative modelled health impact assessment

Their purpose was to measure the influence of Health-related claims (HRCS) on health impacts in the United Kingdom, they build a pre-established non-communicable disease (NCD) scenario model, the Preventable Risk Integrated Model (PRIME) by combining data from previous studies examining the impact of HRC on dietary choices and a survey of pre-packaged foods examining the prevalence of HRCs and the nutritional quality of the food that have them. Two scenarios were tested, regulating HRCs with a nutrient profile model so that only foods that pass the model are eligible to carry HRCs, and the reformulating those that fail the model. See more.

Recommendations for successful substantiation of new health claims in the European Union

The European Union (EU) harmonized the use of health claims in 2006. All of them need to be scientifically assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The EU-funded REDICLAIM: to understand the impact of legislation in the “Reduction of Disease risk” CLAIMs on food and drinks. The overall aims are to achieve effective compliance with better regulation and to contribute to the enhancement of innovative and competitive products. See more.

INFORMAS Food Labelling Module - Monitoring health-related labeling and promotional characters/premium offers on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail outlets.

The aim of this protocol is to monitor health-related labelling components and promotional characters and premium offers on packaged foods and non-alcohol beverages sold mainly in supermarkets, quick service/fast food restaurants and other food service environments. See more.

A comparison of the healthiness of packaged foods and beverages from 12 countries using the Health Star Rating nutrient profiling system, 2013-2018

They compared the healthiness of packaged foods and beverages between selected countries using the Health Star Rating (HSR) nutrient profiling system. Packaged food and beverage data collected 2013–2018 were obtained for Australia, Canada, Chile, China, India, Hong Kong, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, South Africa, the UK, and USA. Each product was assigned to a food or beverage category and mean HSR was calculated overall by category and by country. See more.

Development of a new front-of-pack nutrition label in France: the five-colour  Nutri-Score

The five-coloured front-of-pack nutrition label “Nutri-Score” was developed by the Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team and approved in 2017 by the French Government for its voluntary implementation at the national level. This paper presents the various studies conducted in France prior to the selection of this Front-of-pack nutrition label to provide policymakers with a framework for informed decisions. Efficient the Nutri-Score might be in helping consumers make healthier choices at the point of purchase, a front-of-pack nutrition label can only be one of many interventions aimed at tackling obesity and chronic diseases in the framework of a larger prevention programme.See more.

Big Food’s Opposition to the French Nutri-Score Front-of-Pack Labeling Warrants a Global Reaction

On October 2017, France adopted a Front-of-Pack (FOP) nutrition labelling system, the Nutri-Score, to be implemented on a voluntary basis on pre-packaged food. This measure aims to help consumers make healthier choices at the point of purchases; in addition, it could be a strong incentive for agro-alimentary industry to reformulate their products to improve their nutritional quality. This article exposes the strategies against the Nutri-Score FOP nutritional labelling from the industry that belongs to the Big Tobacco playbook: shaping the evidence base, political and economic pressures, destabilizing scientific opponents, delaying the decisions, and offering substitutions to the proposed policy. See more

Impact of Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels on Portion Size Selection: An Experimental Study in a French Cohort

In the European Union (EU) three coloured graded Front-of-Pack labels (FoPLs) are currently being discussed, two endorsed by governments (Nutri-Score and Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL)) and one designed by industry (Evolved Nutrition Label (ENL)). This study aimed to investigate the impact of these FoPLs on portion size selection, specifically for less healthy products. Nutri-Score followed by MTL appear efficient tools to encourage consumers to decrease their portion size for less healthy products, while ENL appears to have inconsistent effects depending on the food category. See more.

Perception of different formats of front of-pack nutrition labels according to sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors in a French population: cross-sectional study among the NutriNet-Santé cohort participants

The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of four formats for a front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label considered in France: the Nutriscore (or 5-Colour Nutrition Label, developed by a public research team), the SENS (supported by retailers), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, currently used in UK) and a modified version of the Reference Intakes (mRIs, supported by industry), according to sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. See more.

Portuguese consumers’ attitudes towards food labelling

The aim of this study was to contribute to understanding of Portuguese consumer behaviour about nutrition labels. Such understanding is fundamental for developing public policies and actions in the agri-food sector in order to promote knowledge, understanding and effective use of nutrition labels in decisions to buy food products. This report adds to information on Portuguese consumers’ understanding, preference and use of different labelling formats. It contributes to discussions on a policy for FOP labelling and may inform decisions for a national scheme. Internationally, this study adds to the growing consensus that FOP labelling is important to consumers and that the most effective schemes are likely to be those that are interpretive and based on symbols, colours, words or quantifiable elements. See more.

The nutritional quality of foods carrying health-related claims in Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia and the United Kingdom

This study compares the nutritional quality of pre-packaged foods carrying health-related claims with foods that do not carry health-related claims. Data collection took place in supermarkets, neighbourhood and discount stores in the United Kingdom, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Slovenia. The healthiness of foods was assessed by comparing the mean levels of energy, protein, carbohydrate, total sugars, fat, saturated fat, fibre and sodium of foods carrying health-related claims against foods that do not carry claims. See more.

The Impact of Package Color and the Nutrition Content Labels on the Perception of Food Healthiness and Purchase Intention

This article presents how the choice of colour in food packaging, along with the nutrition content claim labelling can influence the consumer’s perception of food healthiness and purchase intention. 120 participants with normal weight participated in the study. The results suggest that utilitarian, but not hedonic, food products in blue-coloured packages were perceived to be healthier than those in red-coloured packages. The perception of food healthiness was sensitive to the package colour and influenced the purchase intention of packaged foods. See more.

Impact of the front-of-pack 5-colour nutrition label (5-CNL) on the nutritional quality of purchases: an experimental study

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL) on the nutritional quality of purchases in experimental supermarkets. Participants were distributed in three experimental conditions (1) control situation; (2) application of the 5-CNL on all food products in breakfast cereals, sweet biscuits and appetizers; (3) introduction of the 5-CNL accompanied by consumer information on use and understanding of the label. See more.

A qualitative study concerning the Keyhole’s influence over 25 years on product development

The Keyhole has been in the Swedish market for more than 25 years. A consultancy group has conducted depth interviews with people in strategic positions within the Swedish food industry, both on the commercial side and within trade associations to identified six trends: health, shopping outlets, private labels, social responsibility, internet shopping and capital investment. See more.

Modelling the impact of different front-of-package nutrition labels on mortality from non-communicable chronic disease

Front-of-Package nutrition labels (FoPLs) are intended to help reduce the incidence of nutrition related non-communicable diseases through an improvement in diet quality. FoPLs have been shown to improve the nutritional quality of purchases and have been associated with improved diet quality, which is in turn associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. However, the potential impact of FoPLs on reducing mortality from chronic diseases has never been estimate. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential impact of several different FoPLs designs on mortality from chronic diseases in the French population using a macro-simulation model. See more.